For many years, many research centers have been conducting intensive research to establish a direct connection between the human brain and various devices. These studies were conducted to control computers, wheelchairs, prosthetic devices and other devices with the human brain through brain signals.
The report on "Brain-computer interface: current situation, architecture, applications and problems" was heard at the next online scientific seminar of the 4th department of the Institute of Information Technology of ANAS.
Presenting the report, senior researcher of the institute, PhD in technical sciences Mammad Hashimov noted that the human brain is composed of a complex network of about 100 billion neurons. When a person thinks, moves, feels, or remembers, neurons work, transmitting information to or from the brain by sending electrical signals. These electrical signals can be detected with the help of various technologies and used to control the device, machine, computer.
Speaking about the stages of development of the brain-computer interface, the speaker said that research in this area has been conducted since the 1920s. In the 1950s, Spanish professor Jose Delgado implanted electrodes in the brains of animals and stimulated them using a radio receiver placed under the skull.
The researcher said the concept of using signals directly from the brain to control prosthetic devices was developed in the late 1960s, and that researchers working in the field of rehabilitation suggested that the potential of non-paralyzed muscles could be useful for controlling artificial limbs.
Then M. Hashimov noted that in the 1970s, researchers created primary control systems based on electrical activity derived from the brain. In 1973, Belgian professor Jacques Vidal developed a system that uses brain signals to determine the direction of a person's vision. With the help of this system, it was possible to determine the direction in which a visually impaired person wants to move. At the same time, J. Vidal introduced the term BKI (brain-computer interface) to science.
Clarifying the term BMI, the researcher said that BMI is a system of communication between the human brain and the computer that complements each other. This interface allows you to communicate not with the nervous and muscular system of the human body, but with the help of its mental activity.
He noted that the BMI provides a useful platform for people with disabilities to perform certain actions. This platform uses brain imaging technologies to help improve the quality of communication between humans and machines.
Speaking about the architecture of the BMI, the speaker noted that it consists of 4 main stages - signal reception, signal processing, conversion algorithm and final device stages.
Hashimov noted that the implants were placed under the skull in a partially invasive way without piercing the brain, and although the quality of the signals was low, the reception of signals from the brain did not harm human health compared to the invasive method.
Then he gave information about non-invasive methods, magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional semi-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography. He said that BMI systems record signals in high quality without any implantation in the patient's brain.
The researcher also spoke about BMI applications. He said that BrainGate is a prosthesis developed by a biotechnology company in the field of cyberkinetics at the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University in the United States. In 2008, a group led by Andrew Schwartz, a professor of neurobiology at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States, presented a study entitled "A robotic arm controlled by a monkey brain." The study showed that the monkey was fed by a robotic arm that was electronically connected to its brain.
He added that in the field of entertainment applications, BKI consists of the most modern gaming technologies in the form of neuro-games. This type of game technology uses physiological functions such as human brain signals, the player's heartbeat and facial expressions to control the game.
Speaking about the existing problems in the field of BMI, M. Hashimov noted that these include inaccuracies in the results, security, logistics problems.
At the end, the seminar participants' questions about the report were answered.